1 Reproductive, Lower Limb & Action of Muscles & Bones

nibbs06's version from 2016-06-19 17:33

Actions of Muscles/Bones

Question Answer
Psoas MajorFlexion of the thigh @ hip joint
Psoas MinorWeak flexion of lumbar vertebral column
Quadratus Lumborumdepression & stabilization of 12th rib & some lateral trunk bending
IliacusFlexion of the thigh @ hip joint
Piriformislateral rotation of extended hip, abduction of flexed hip
Obturator InternusLateral rotation of extended hip, abduction of flexed hip
Obturator ExternusLaterally rotates the thigh and steadies head of femur in acetabulum
Superior & Inferior Gemelliabduct flexed femur at hip joint
Quadratus FemorisLaterally rotates femur @ hip joint
External Abdominal Obliqueflex & rotate trunk, compress abdominal viscera
Internal Abdominal Obliquecompress & support abdominal viscera, flex & rotate trunk
Transversus Abdominiscompress & support abdominal viscera
Rectus Abdominisflex trunk & compress abdominal viscera
Gluteus Minimus & MediusAbducts femur @ hip joint; holds pelvis secure over stance leg & prevents pelvic drop on the opposite swing side during walking
Gluteus Maximusextensor of flexed femur @ hip joint; lateral stabilizer of hip joint & knee joint
Actions of the Gluteus maximus, medius and minimus muscles areextension & lateral rotation of the thigh
All other gluteal muscles, except for Gluteus max/med/minabduction & lateral rotation of the thigh
Bony Pelvistransfers the weight of the upper body from the axial skeleton to the lower appendicular skeleton
Bicep Femorislateral rotation of leg
Semitendinosusmedial rotation of leg
Sartoriusflexes, abducts and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint; flexes leg at knee joint
Quadriceps Femorisextend the leg at the knee joint
Tensor Fascia Lataabducts thigh; keeps pelvis level and helps leg on opposite side wing through
Iliopsoasmajor flexor of the thigh
Pectineusadducts and flexes the thigh and helps medially rotate it
Adductor LongusAdduction of the thigh
Adductor Magnusflexes (adductor part) and extends the thigh (hamstring part)
Gracilisflexes the leg and helps rotate it medially
Anterior leg musclesextension of the digits, dorsiflexion of the foot and inversion of the foot
Tibialis Anteriorpowerful inverter of the foot (dorsal flexion)
Extensor digitorum longusextension of the toes and dorsiflexion of the ankle
Extensor halluces longusextension of the big toe and dorsiflexion of the ankle
Lateral leg muscleseversion of foot
Fibularis Longuscauses eversion of the foot
Fibularis Breviscauses eversion of the foot
Posterior leg musclesplantar flexion of the foot and flexion of the digits…powerful propulsive force when walking/running/jumping/standing on toes(even lowering slowly against gravity)
Soleus + triceps suraethey’re strong plantar flexors of the foot; and act, when standing to prevent the body from being pulled forward
Gastrocnemiusraises heel during walking; flexes leg at knee joint
Popliteusflexes leg, slightly rotating tibia inward to assist with starting flex
Muscles on the sole of the foot (plantar surface)assist in flexion of the muscles
Abductor digiti minimipulls the baby toe towards midline
Extensor digitorum brevisassist extensor digitorum longus in extending the lateral digits at the metatarsalophalangeal joint
Extensor halluces brevisassists halluces longus in extending the hallux at the metatarsophalangeal joint
Lumbricalsflex the proximal phalanges & extend the middle & distal phalanges of the lateral 4 digits.
Flexor Digitorum BrevisFlexion & abduction of the digits
Abductor Hallucesflexion & abduction of the hallux
Quadratus plantaeassist the flexor digitorum longus in flexion of the toes
The plantar interossi are responsible foradducting the digits
The dorsal interossi are responsible forabducting the digits
If you raise your toes/flex the ankle joint on the dorsum of the foot, it is calleddorsal flexion (or extension)
If you point your toes, it is calledplantar flexion or just flexion
If you rotate your foot so the sole is facing outward, it is calledeversion
If you’re standing and leaning more on the medial part of your foot, that is calledpronation
Supination of the foot isleaning on the lateral part of your foot


Question Answer
The lining of the acetabulum is called the _________, and it _________ (function)Labrum; it deepens the acetabulum
What tuberosity is found on the posterior side of the femur?Gluteal Tuberosity
The proximal end of the femur is made up ofthe head, neck, greater & lesser trochanter, & gluteal tuberosity (posteriorly)
The distal end of the femur is made up oflateral & medial condyles, lateral & medial epicondyles, adductor tubercle and intercondylar fossa (posterior) & patellar surface (anterior).
The two condyles for the Tibia/Fibula, on the distal femur is at thepatellar surface
What is the lateral and medial bones of the leg?Tibia (medial) & Fibula (lateral)
Lateral malleolus is foundon the tibia
Medial malleolus is foundon the fibula
Which leg bone is not apart of the knee joint?the fibula
Which cruciate ligament is the weakest?ACL
The ACL originates & inserts on theoriginates on the intercondyler notch of the femur & inserts on posterior side of the notch.
The cruciate ligament that crosses superiorly and anteriorly on the medial side of the ACL is thePCL
The patella sits over thefemurotibial joint
The fat filled compartment of the leg that contains arteries, veins, nerves & lymph is thePopliteal Fossa
The 7 tarsal bones areCalcaneous, Talus, Navicular, Cuboid & 3 Cuneiforms.
Metatarsal 4 & 5 articulate with theCuboid.
Metatarsal 1-3 articulate withthe corresponding Cuneiforms
There are _________ phalanges per foot14; three each in digits 2-5 & two in the halluces/big toe
There are _________ metatarsals per foot5
Branches of the femoral artery are (2)Deep artery of thigh, & the medial & circumflex femoral arteries
Finish the path. Common Iliac A →External & Internal iliac A –[Deep to Inguinal Ligmanent]→ split; Femoral Artery (From External) & Obturator Artery (From Internal (or from inferior epigastric)) → Femoral branches to Deep A of thigh &, medial & lateral circumflex femoral A; Femoral continues & becomes Popliteal A → passes popliteal fossa –[branches]→ Anterior & Posterior Tibial Arteries
The popliteal artery is a continuation of thefemoral artery
At the popliteal fossa, the popliteal artery branches into theanterior and posterior tibial arteries
The vessels that originate from a dorsal venous arch in the foot arethe Great (Medial) & Small (Lateral) Saphenous Veins
The great saphenous vein dumps blood into theFemoral Vein in femoral triangle
The small saphenous vein dumps blood into thePopliteal Fossa
Anterior tibial vessels pass through theinterosseous membrane
What are the 3 articulating areas of the knee joint?2 are between the lateral&medial femoral&tibial condyles, & 1 is between the patella&femur
The sciatic nerve splits into the tibial n. & common fibular n. @the Popliteal Fossa
What 2 veins originate from a dorsal venous arch in the foot?Great Saphenous vein & Small Saphenous vein
The Great & Small Saphenous veins dump blood into thefemoral vein; small saphenous first dumps into the popliteal vein and then femoral.
The femoral vein becomes the external iliac vein when itcrosses deep to the inguinal canal
Which saphenous vein starts medially & which starts laterally?Small saphenous starts lateral & great sap
Quadriceps Femoris is made up of (4 muscles)Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis & Vastus Intermedius
The thigh muscles & femoral vessels are covered by a layer of tissue that comes from the inguinal ligament fascia, known asFascia Lata
The fascia lata is thickened & strengthened by extra fibers to form theIliotibial tract
The iliotibial tract is the aponeurosis of (2)tensor fascia lata & gluteus maximus muscles
2 muscles that form the femoral triangle areSartorius & Adductor Longus
The femoral triangle containsfemoral nerve and vessels
The only adductor muscle to cross and act at the knee joint as well as the hip joint, is theGracilis muscle
The femoral triangle is bound superiorly, medially and laterally byInguinal Ligament (superior), Adductor Longus (medially) & Sartorius (Laterally)
The muscular floor of the femoral triangle is formed by theIliopsoas (laterally) & the pectineus (medially
The roof of the femoral triangle is formed by theFascia lata, subcutaneous tissue and skin
The contents of the femoral triangle are (from lateral to medial)Femoral nerve, femoral sheath, which includes the femoral artery and then the femoral vein
The tibial nerve supplies the muscles on theposterior thigh and leg and muscles on plantar surface of foot
The common fibular nerve suppliesthe anterolateral muscles of the leg and dorsum of foot
The fibrous band that wraps around the ankle, inferiorly and superiorly are known asSuperior and inferior extensor retinaculum
Deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg areflexor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior & flexor halluces longus
Popliteal Fossa is bound bybiceps femoris, semimembranosus, the lateral and medial head of gastrocnemius
Superficial to muscle of the popliteal fossa is the (nerve)posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
The floor of the popliteal fossa is thefascia overlying the popliteus muscle
In the popliteal fossa, you will findtermination of the small saphenous vein, popliteal vessels, lymph nodes/vessels, the ending/splitting of the sciatic n (@ the superior angle of the PF) into the tibial nerve & common fibular nerves
The tibial nerve & common fibular nerves give off the (nerves)medial and lateral sural cutaneous nerves
Muscles on the sole of the foot areFlexor Digitorum Brevis, Abductor Hallucis, Lumbricals & Quadratus Plantae
What muscle is initiated first when you flex your leg?Plantaris
What two muscles attach on the posterior surface of calcaneus via the Achilles tendon?2 headed gastrocnemius & soleus muscles
The arches of the foot is made by a thick central plantar fascia that is called theplantar aponeurosis
The muscles on the dorm of the foot areExtensor digitorum brevis, extensor halluces brevis & dorsal interossei


Question Answer
The bony pelvis is made up by (4) 2 pelvic hip bones, Sacrum & Coccyx
The pelvic bones are joined at the _________ anteriorlyPubic Symphysis
The pelvic bones are joined at the _________ posteriorlySacrum
The joining of the pelvic bones (posterior & anterior) at their respected areas, forms a bony ring calledthe pelvic girdle
The superior pelvic aperture is defined bysuperior border of pubic Symphysis, pubic crest, pectin of pubis, Arcuate line of ilia (iliac Arcuate line), ala of the sacrum and the promontory of the sacrum
The inferior pelvic aperture is defined byinferior margin of pubic Symphysis, ischiopubic ramus, sacrotuberous ligament & tip of coccyx
The greater pelvis (or false pelvis) issuperior to the pelvic inlet, bound anteriorly by the abdominal wall, iliac alae (laterally) and vertebral (posteriorly), and contains inferior part of ab cavity and some ab viscera.
The lesser pelvis (or true pelvis) isbetween the pelvic inlet & outlet, limited inferiorly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is bound anteriorly by the pubic Symphysis and posteriorly to the coccyx, and it contains the pelvic viscera where the pelvic cavity is located.
The anterior wall of the pelvis is formed bythe bodies and rami of the pubic bones & the pubic Symphysis
The lateral wall of the pelvis are covered & padded byObturator Internus Muscles
The posterior wall of the pelvis is formed by thesacrum, coccyx & adjacent parts of the ilia
The posterior walls of the pelvis are covered byPiriformis on each side
The muscles that cover up the pelvic outlet, and are responsible for contracting when defecatingLevator Ani & Coccygeus Muscles aka the Pelvic Diaphragm
The pelvic diaphragm stretch between the _________ anteriorly & the _________ posteriorlypubis & coccyx
The female round ligament of the uterus passes from the uterus through the inguinal canal andattaches to the base of the labia majora
The scrotum is formed byskin & superficial fascia
Testosterone is secreted by (male testes)Leydig Cells
Spermatids are enveloped by _________, which allows them to develop into spermatozoaSertoli Cells
Spermatozoa are produced in theseminiferous tubules of the testes
The duct of the epididymus is a convoluted tubule & has 3 partsthe head, body and tail
The tail of the epididymus is continuous with thevas deferens
What is the vas deferens?a thick-walled muscular tube through which sperm, which were produced in the testes, pass; it’s an extension of the elongated epididymis
Spermatozoa go up the vas deferens →superficial ring → inguinal canal → deep ring → ureter → meet behind the bladder @ the Vas Deferens called the ampulla of the vas deferens and meets with the seminal vesicles
The ejaculatory duct is formed bythe vas deferens & and the duct of the seminal vesicle
During ejaculation, the seminal vesiclessecrete a thick, alkaline fluid that passes into the ejaculatory duct
The ejaculatory ducts pass through the posterior part of the prostate gland and open up into theprostatic urethra within the gland
The embryo implants within theuterus
The lower 1/3 of the uterus is known as thecervix
What ligament holds the uterus in place?broad ligament and & round ligament
The external os is thedistal opening into the cervix/uterus
The broad ligament isa double layer of peritoneum that lies over the uterus; it helps keep the uterus in position
The broad ligament that is holding the ovaries in place is calledMesovarium
The broad ligament that is holding the fallopian tubes is called theMesosalpinx
Where in the fallopian/uterine tube does fertilization occur?the ampulla of the fallopian tube
The fallopian tube is sectioned into 3 parts called theisthmus, ampulla and infundibulum
The floor of the perineum is formed byskin & structures of the external genitalia
The roof of the perineum is formed bythe pelvic diaphragm; a group of flat, sheet-like muscles
Male structures located in the perineum arepenis (root, body and glans) & scrotum
The penis is divided into 2 internal structures2 corpus cavernosa & a corpus spongiosum (location of urethral)
The muscle of the scrotum is called thecremaster muscle
The scrotum is derived fromthe anterolateral abdominal wall
The perineum is divided into two trianglesanterior urogenital triangle & posterior anal triangle
The female perineum includes thelabia majora + minora, Mons pubis, clitoris, vestibule of the vagina, external urethral orifice & vaginal orifice