#1 Pregnancy Test #4 114

kelsscoot's version from 2015-11-25 23:22

Section 1

Question Answer
What does the placenta promote and provide?fetal growth and development
Functions of the placentaMetabolism, transport of gases and nutrients, and secretion of hormones
What is the placenta developed fromfertilized ovum
How much does this ovoid organ weigh and cover?weighs 1/6 of fetus and covers 1/3 surface area of uterus at term
What is a fertilized egg called?blastocyst
Implantation of the blastocyst/fertilized egg in the endometrium begins how many days after fertilization?6
These exit the fetus at the umbilicus forming cord & insert in the center of placenta2 arteries & a vein
What do the fetal vessels branch into?chorionic villi
What is the site of exchange between maternal and placental membranes?fetal capillaries
What type of waste products transfer from fetal to maternal circulation?carbon dioxide & uric acid
Placenta also produces these 6 thingshCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) - levels tested early on for pregnancy, estrogen, progesterone, relaxin, prolactin, other hormones

Section 2

Question Answer
What are the three trimesters during fetal development?pre-embyronic, embryonic, fetal
How long does each trimester last?13 weeks or 3 months
This is the weeks from last normal menstural periodgestational age
Early embryo stage is what?first 2 weeks after fertilization
From 2-8 weeks the embryo is in a stage of what?organogenesis
This is an agent such as a virus, drug, chemical, or radiation that can cause malformation of the embryo or fetus & may cause congenital abnormalitiesTeratogen
From when to when is a baby called a fetus? (weeks)8 to birth
By the end of the first trimester, all major systems have formed. T or FTrue
This is the point at which the fetus can survive outside of the uterusViability
At what point can viability occur?22 weeks or at weight of 500g
Fluttery initial sensations of fetal movement perceived by the momquickening
When does quickening begin? (as felt by mom)usually around 18 weeks, possibly earlier in females who have given birth before
How soon can fetal movements be detected?7 weeks via ultrasound
When does the fetal heart begin beating?22 days
When can the fetal heart be heard via Doppler? via fetoscope?7-12 weeks, appox. 18 weeks
Sounds of the uterine arteries, synchronous with the maternal pulseuterine souffle
Sounds of the umbilical vessels, synchronous with the fetal HRfunic souffle

Section 3

Question Answer
Uterus increases in size due to what?Estrogen and progesterone
increases contractility of uterusEstrogen
goes from pear to globular by how many weeks?12
Bimanual palpation 6 weekslemon
Bimanual palpation 8 weekssmall orange
Bimanual palpation 10 weekslarge orange
Bimanual palpation 12 weeksGrapefruit
Top of uterusfundus
mom begins to show when?14-16 weeks (primigravida)
primigravida1st pregnancy
multigravidaalready had kids
10-12 weeks, fundus atsymphysis pubis
16 weeks, fundus halfway betweensymphysis pubis and umbilicus
when does fundus reach umbilicus20-22 weeks
Fundus increases until what week?38
How is distance of fundus measured?w/measuring tape to assess fetal growth and dates in pregnancy
After 20 weeks of gestation, the gestation should equal fundal height in cm.McDonald's rule
Descent of fetal head into pelvislightening
when does lightening occur?38-40 weeks
Absence of menstrationAmenorrhea (S/S)
Uterus and area that connects the body of the uterus and cervix softens, known as this...Hegar's sign
irregular shape of the uterus due to implantation of ovumPiskacek's sign
painless & unpredictable contractions of uterus that do not dilate cervix/"practice contractions"Braxton Hicks Contractions
Braxton Hicks Contractions, start1st trimester
Braxton Hicks contractions, palpable by nurse2nd trimester
Braxton Hicks contractions, felt by mom3rd trimester
Technique of palpation where examiner's hand is used to push against the uterus and detect presence or position of a fetus by its return impact, can be elicited after 20 weeks because amnotic fluidBallottement
Clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds fetus, is greater in comparison to the still small fetusAmnotic fluid
Uterus lining thickens by how much during pregnancy?4x thicker

Section 4

Question Answer
Opening of uterusCervix
cervix develops a mucus plug due to whatprogesterone
nonodorus, nonpainful, vaginal discharge that protects against infectionLeukorrhea
Cervix predisposed to what due to high glycogen in vaginal cellsyeast infection
Good and soft cervix, starting at about 6 weeksGoodell's sign
Blue cervix ( increased vascularity)Chadwick's sign
Cervix very soft, end of pregnancy, preparing for laborRipening
Thinning of cervix in preparation for laborEffacement
Onset of labor, opening of cervixDilation
Why do the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vaginal introitus enlarge?due to hypertrophy and increased vascularity... lots of blood going on down there, things get bigger

Section 5

Question Answer
yellowish specialized form of early breast milk starting in 2nd trimester and replaced with mature mild during early days of lactation after delivery (first milk)Colostrum
sebaceous glands on the areola, enlarge and produce a secretion that protects and lubricates nipplesMongomery's tubercles
Nipple and areola change how in color?Darken (S/S)
caused by growth of alveoli and ductal system and the depositon of fat in the breasts via estrogen and progesteroneTenderness, enlargement, and tingling (S/S)
When do breast changes occur?4-6 weeks gestation

Section 6

Question Answer
Uterus enlarging lifts diaphragm how much?4cm
Increasing levels of this allow for changes in thoraxrelaxin and progestrone
The ribs do what..flare
subcostal angle increase or decrease?increase
Transverse diameter of chest increase or decrease?increase
progesterone has stimulating properties, increase RR rate of about how many breaths per min?2
lowered threshold for carbon dioxide, contributing to a sense of ...Dyspnea (SOB)
airway resistance and expiratory volume increase or decrease?decrease
tidal Volume and inspiratory capacity increase or decreaseincrease
How much oxygen consumption is increased, even when vital capacity is unchanged?20-60%
Oxygen consumption change results in what?Fatigue (1st trimester), Hyperventilation, Rales aka crackles
due to compression of uterusrales

Section 7

Question Answer
Blood & Plasma volume increase by how much?30-50%
when does blood and plasma volume increase?6-8 weeks
Increased progesterone leads to a decreased what?venous tone
Increased progesterone and increased estrogen combined increase what?Sodium retention and total body water (edema in ankles for example)
RBC's can increase by what percentage?25-33%
A decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit or physiologic anemia can be caused by what?plasma volume increase (more fluid, but RBCs stay the same)
reticulocytes gradually increase or decrease? increase
WBC's, increase or decrease?Increase
caused by increased activity of most coagulation factors and decreased activities of factors that inhibit coagulation. Increases chance of clotting. Hypercoaguable state
Cardiac size changes how?enlargement (it's working harder)
What can cause a systolic murmur?Displacement when of the diaphragm (heart upward and to left), goes away after delivery
How much does heart rate gradually increase?10-20 bpm
With all these changes, why does B/P stay the same?remains the same because decrease in vascular resistance leads to decrease in diastolic BP (lowest in 2nd trimester) returns to baseline by delivery
pressure from pregnant uterus compresses the descending aorta and inferior vena cavaSupine Hypotension syndrome
What position should someone experiancing Supine Hypotension Syndrome be placed in?on their left side. When supine may experiance dizziness, syncope, and significant drop in Heart rate and BP
What does the pressure from the pregnant uterus compress in an individual with Supine hypotension syndrome?Descending Aorta and Inferior vena cava
decreased peripheral resistance (increased filling in legs, pressure on femoral veins restricts venous return)Dependent edema
Varicosities/varicose veins can be present where?legs, vulva, rectum (hemorrhoids)
Shunt of blood to uteroplacental circulation provides physical space for what?increased plasma volume

Section 8

Question Answer
tendionous line that extends midline from symphysis pubis to xiphoid darkens with progression and becomes linea nigraLinea Alba
Linea Alba becomes what?Linea nigra
mask of pregnancy, butterfly pattern over forehead, nose & cheeks. Seen with combined oral contraceptives. Freckles, nevi & scars may also darken in pregnancy.Melasma (choasma)
stretching of collagen in skin, fade overtime to silverStriae gravidarum (stretch marks)
Dilated arterioles, fade, face, neck, & armsSpider angiomas or nevi
Reddening or mottling of palms or fleshy side of fingersPalmer erythemia
Decrease in the apocrine sweat gland activity in what areas?axillae, abdomen, genitalia
Increase in Eccrine sweat glands in palms, soles, and forehead due to what?thyroid and metabolic activity
May also develop skin tags... on what areas?face, neck, axillae, between breasts, groin, or friction areas
Skin, Hair, and nail changesHair growth, Hirsuits (facial hair growth), Pruritus (Itching), Nails soften and thin

Section 9

Question Answer
ear,nose, throat, mouth changesearaches and heightened sense of smell (remember increased fluid)
Nose inflammationRhinitis
nose bleedsEpistaxis
Edema of vocal cordshoarseness
hyperedema of throatsnoring
gun inflammationgingivitis

Section 10

Question Answer
Gastrointestinal changesGastrointestinal changes
Nausea/vomitting4-6 weeks, should resolve around week 2
picaabnormal craving/ingestion of non nutritional items
constipationdisplacement/decreased mobility
Gall bladder disturbancelonger to send out bile
Heartburndue to displaced stomach
Hemorrhoidsdue to pressure on pelvic veins
Nutritional demands increaseextra 300 calories, 15g of protein extra, expected 23-35lbs weight gain

Section 11

Question Answer
Urinary changesdecreased bladder tone, changes in filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
Urinary frequency35-60% increase blood flow needs toxions moved out of body
Nocturiaincreased night peeing (due to edema)

Section 12

Question Answer
Musculoskeletal changesAbdominal, groin, gradual lordosis, joints relax, muscle cramps
Breast enlargementcan pull shoulder's forward
Round ligamentsattached to uterus under fallopian tubes
back paindue to lordosis

Section 13

Question Answer
Neurologic changesVascular headaches, visual changes, insomnia, leg cramps, dizziness
Sciaticapain down leg from back

Section 14

Question Answer
Endocrine changesMetabolic changes, decreased sensitivity to insulin, promote glucose transfer to fetus, risk for gestational DM and ketosis
Can be harmful to fetal brainketosis
Oxytocin and prolactin hormone secretions are responsible for what?Uterine contractions and milk production

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