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1- General Renal Anatomy

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omarys's version from 2017-05-22 21:58

Section 1

Question Answer
Rt. kidney relates anteriorly to (acronym: LLDDCFSI) (not counting the adrenal gland)(rt.) lobe of liver, descending duodenum, (rt.) colic flexure, small intestine
Is the descending part of the duodenum intra- or retroperitoneal?Retro (desc = disc = disco = retro music)
Lt. kidney relates anteriorly to (acronym: Sp? JCF P DC = SuP? Just Ceeing iF (u wanna) Pe in Washington DC) (not counting adrenal AND STOMACH)Spleen, jejunum, (lt.) colic flexure, pancreas (& splenic vessels), descending colon
The left colic flexure and descending colon are both retro- or intraperitoneal?Retro
The spleen and the stomach (SS) are both retro- or intraperitoneal?Intra
The pancreas is retro- or intraperitoneal?Retro
Lateral (flank) and posterior (lumbar) surgical approaches to the kidney are extra- or intraperitoneal approaches?Extra
The ____ and ____ nerves relate to the kidney's posterior aspectiliohypogastric and ilioinguinal
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Section 2

Question Answer
Tube inserted surgically into the back and used to remove kidney stones from the renal pelvis-nephroscope
Small catheter inserted percutaneously (through the back) to drain kidney into external catheter bag-nephrostomy (tube)
The 5 segmental arteries are the superior, inferior, _____ ______, _____ ____, and _____.anterior superior, anterior inferior, posterior
Renal artery > segmental artery > ______ artery > ______ artery > ______ artery > afferent arteriolesinterlobar (runs bwn pyramids, in columns) > arcuate (runs at base of pyramids) > interlobular (runs in cortex)
The uriniferous tubule is made up of the ______ and _____ _____nephron ; collecting duct
The nephron is made up of the ____ ____ and the _____renal corpuscle ; tubules
Is the functional unit of the kidney the nephron or the uriniferous tubule?The uriniferous tubule
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Section 3

Question Answer
What is the renal corpuscle made of?Bowman's/glomerular capsule and the glomerulus (=capillaries)
Function of renal corpuscle?production of filtrate
Function of PCT?Reabsorption of water, ions, and ALL ORGANIC NUTRIENTS
Function of LOH?Further reabsorption of water and ions
The (thin) descending limb of the LOH is responsibe for the absorption of-water
The (thick) ascending limb of the LOH is responsibe for the absorption of-ions (BOTH sodium and chloride)
MAIN function of the DCT?Secretion of ions, drugs and toxins, acids
ADDITIONAL/VARIABLE function of the DCT?Reabsorption of water and ions (under hormonal control)
What ions are specifically absorbed in the DCT?Sodium and calcium
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
The collecting system is part of the _______ unit/tubuleuriniferous
The function of the collecting duct is _____ of ____ (variable), _____ or _____ of (4 ions) ________.absorption of water ; absorption or secretion of Na+, K+, H+ and bicarbonate
The papillary duct, which delivers urine to the minor calyx, is AKAThe duct of Bellini
Which type of nephron makes up the majority (>80%) of nephrons?Cortical
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Section 5

Question Answer
The urothelium (epithelium of ureters) is a-transitional epithelium
Several arteries supply the ureters, including the ____, ______, and branches of the branches of the ______ ______ artery, as well as arteries arising directly from the aorta.Renal, gonadal, internal iliac
The 3 ureteric constrictions are-ureteropelvic junction, pelvic inlet (crossing of iliac artery), ureterovesical junction
Ureteric colic is verypainful
A calculus (stone) that lodges in the ureteric constrictions provokes-spasm of ureteric muscles
Pain due to a ureteric colic is usually referred to cutaneous areas innervated by-T11-L2, genitofemoral nerve (anterior aspect of thigh + upper scrotum or labium majus)
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Section 6

Question Answer
Pelvic splanchnic nerves are ___ (sympathetic or para?) arising from spinal cord segments _____parasympathetic ; S2-3-4
Sacral splanchnic nerves are ____ (sympathetic or para?)sympathetic - emerge from fusion of sympathetic trunks
Both the sacral and pelvic splanchnic nerves travel towards the ____ and ____ ______ _______, where the sacral nerves ______ while the pelvic nerves do not.superior and inferior hypogastric plexuses ; synapse
The superior and inferior hypogastric plexuses (containing mixed sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves) supply the-ureters
Which nerves SYNAPSE in the aorticorenal ganglia?Sympathetic fibers from the T10-L1 segments (lesser and least splanchnic nerves) - Just a note: the greater splanchnic arises from T5-T9 or -T10.
The aorticorenal ganglion is found within the ____ plexusrenal
Which nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the kidneys?Vagus
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Section 7

Question Answer
Lymphatic drainage of kidneys, ureters and adrenals is tort. and lt. lumbar trunks
14 reasons why (obstruction of urinary tract)STS, TB, uC & rF (or rT), PECc, TN, PU
memorize

Section 8

Question Answer
"Nephrology ; upper urinary tract" is analogous to"Urology ; lower urinary tract"
Urinary system = _____ and _____ _____ _____upper, lower urinary tracts
In the fetal kidney, there is an avg of ___ lobules, which coalesce after birth to give the kidney its smooth appearance12
Which vertebrae are the kidneys adjacent to?L1-L3 (one two three, I really have to pee)
How do the kidneys relate to the iliac crest?Both are above it (rt. is above it only by 1 cm)
Both rib 11 and 12 relate to which kidney?Lt.
What do the kidneys and adrenals have in common?Blood supply/drainage, innervation, lymphatic drainage
______'s fascia separates the _______ from the ______ ______Gerota ; perirenal ; pararenal fat
What structures lie bwn the anterior and posterior layers of the renal fascia?IVC, aorta, kidneys, perirenal fat
In a sagittal section, it can be seen that the anterior and posterior layers of the renal fascia ____ ____ ______ inferiorly, which allows the kidneys to descend in some cases.do not fuse
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Section 9

Question Answer
Dropped kidney may happen when/in-there's loss of fat / certain occupations (dancers who jump a lot)
Complication of dropped kidney-folding of ureters and obstruction
Compression of which 2 nerves due to renal pathology may manifest as pain in lower abdominal regions that radiates to the medial thigh and scrotum?iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves
From anterior to posterior, the order of structures at the hilum is:Vein, artery, ureter (or pelvis)
Each pyramid in the kidney was originally a ___ in the fetuslobule
"Medullary rays ; cortex" is analogous to"renal columns ; medulla"
_____ liters of blood/day arrive at both kidneys, out of which ____ liters/day are filtered1800 ; 180 (GFR = 140-180 L/day)
Use _______ to check for variants (considered normal) in blood supply segmentation to the kidneysangiography
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Section 10

Question Answer
Difference in O2 content bwn afferent and efferent arterioles?Practically 0
3 factors create pressure gradient to allow optimal filtration in corpuscle:pressure in renal artery is high (emerges directly from aorta), afferent diameter > efferent diameter, renin secretion
3 terms for a procedure that outlines blood vessels, usually arteries, in various areas in the bodyangiogram, arteriogram, angiography
By contrast to the esophagus, the longitudinal muscle layer in the ureter is the ____ layer.inner
What structure of the male reproductive system relates to the ureter?vas deferens
memorize

Section 11

Question Answer
Normal cardiac output is 5L/min, and the kidneys receive about ____ of it, which is ___ L/min.25% ; 1.25 (1.25 L/min is 1800 L/day)
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